Radiography Inspection

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Radiography Inspection

Sub-surface discontinuities are detected by transmitting X-rays or Gamma rays through a material to a film on the opposite side of the piece being tested. Radiography works on both ferrous and non-ferrous materials. Magna Chek has several Radiographic capabilities: X-Ray, Real Time X-Ray, Gamma Ray and Mobile NDT units. Whatever your needs, Magna Chek can assist you with them.

Real Time Radiography

Real Time radiography is a method whereby an image is produced electronically, rather than on film. This is a highly requested form of X-ray. Being produced electronically on a disk, very little lag time occurs between the item being exposed to radiation and the resulting image. In most instances, the electronic image that is viewed results from the radiation passing through the object being inspected and interacting with a screen of material that fluoresces or gives off light when the interaction occurs. The fluorescent elements of the screen form the image much as the grains of silver form the image in film radiography. The image formed is a ‘positive image,’ since brighter areas on the image indicates where higher levels of transmitted radiation reached the screen. This image is the opposite of the negative image produced in film radiography. In other words, with RTR, the lighter, brighter areas represent thinner sections or less dense sections of the test object. Real-time radiography is a well-established method of NDT having applications in automotive, aerospace, pressure vessel, electronic, and munitions industries, among others. The use of RTR is increasing due to a reduction in the cost of the equipment and resolution of issues such as the protecting and storing digital images.

X-ray

radiography x-rayWith Magna Chek’s 200 and 300 kilovolt x-ray units, maximum thickness penetration is 2.5inches of steel. But it offers an even greater thickness penetration when inspecting aluminum, plastics, ceramics and other certain materials, depending on their density. We have a 12×12 foot exposure room with a sliding lead doorwall that is capable of inspecting very large pieces. Testing in this room uses the 300kilovolt x-ray unit for maximum penetration and greater versatility. With this large exposure room we can test a wide variety of large parts such as steering components, aircraft assemblies, armored vehicles, turrets and more. We can also test large lot sizes of castings, forgings, solid state components, etc.

 

Real Time X-Ray

Magna Chek uses the BI-VISION video digital image processing system. This system sets the standard for industrial real time x-ray image enhancement. With its high resolution, speed and advanced image manipulation features, the BI-VISION system provides quick and accurate detection of the most subtle defects from the x-ray image up to 2.5inches of steel. This system provides a wide range of image processing functions that are easily accessed through the touch screen menus. Features include frame averaging, recursive frame averaging, contrast, black and white levels adjusting, image overlay labeling and pseudo color. A range of 2 to 264 frames of video can be integrated and averaged to reduce white noise caused by x-ray scatter. Image convolution features include image sharpening, smoothing, edge detection, edge enhancing and more. The on-screen distance measuring feature allows easy evaluation of the sizes of image indications. Images can be output to RS-170 or SVGA monitors, stored to disks or other digital storage media or printed. All of these capabilities and more, make the BI-VISION digital image processing system ideally suited for integration in to NDT radiography applications. This system allows us to create an immediate and thorough analysis of complex structures of varying densities. Our equipment enables us to identify and diagnose submicron defects, void percentage, solder sphere information and wire sweeping. Real Time also gives the user freedom to enhance image quality and obtain distance and diameter measurements of a component. Without the need to remove components from protective packaging, it allows for single layer inspection of the electronic components. Real Time X-ray can also be a complimentary technique providing critical information for the proper implementation of subsequent analytical techniques.

 

Capabilities

  • Submicron spot size
  • Automatic void identification and measurement software
  • Maximum inspection area of 18″ by 16″ (458mm by 407mm)
  • Image analysis and measurement software
  • System (geometric) magnification up to 4800X
  • Oblique angle view 0 to 45 degrees
  • Digital Imaging

Industries

  • Microelectronic
  • Aerospace
  • Automotive
  • Medical
  • Commercial

Applications

  • Failure Analysis
  • Process and Quality Control
  • Reliability 
  • Printed Circuit Boards
  • Solder Joint Formation
  • Metallization Defects and Registrations
  • Via Alignment

Ball Grid Arrays

  • Solder Sphere Formation and Voiding
  • Die Attach 

Ceramic Packages

  • Frit Seals
  • Foreign Material
  • Die Attach
  • Bond Wire Sweep

Metal Packages

  • Lid Seals
  • Die Attach
  • Opaque Particles

Plastic Packages

  • Die Attach
  • Bond Wire Sweep

Gamma Ray

radiographic testingWith Magna Chek’s Gamma Ray unit, we increase penetration capabilities up to 3.5 inches of steel. Gamma ray units do not require power because of the Iridium isotope, which makes them ideal for inspecting remote items such as pipelines, bridges, etc.

CT Scan

Industrial CT uses irradiation to produce three-dimensional views of the scanned sample both externally and internally. Industrial CT scanning has been used in many areas of industry for internal inspection of components. The most common use for industrial CT scanning is flaw detection, failure analysis, metrology, assembly analysis and reverse engineering applications. Industrial imaging includes both nontomographic radiography and computed tomographic radiography. With 30+ years of experience, we have accomplished many unique NDT projects, No matter how routine or how unconventional your project may be we can handle your inspection needs.

Mobile NDT Units

Can’t come to us? Then Magna Chek will come to you. Our units can be equipped with 200 or 300 kilovolt X-Ray machines or Gamma ray units – whatever your spec requires. On site development, interpretation and reporting are standard with Magna Chek. These units are available for on-site inspection of power generating turbines, boilers, pressure vessels, bridges, crane assemblies and much more.

Acceptable Standards
  • ASNT-SNTC-1A
  • CP 189
  • ASME Section IV
  • API 1104
  • ASTM E 94, Standard Guide for Radiographic Examination
  • ASTM E 155, Standard Reference Radiographs for Inspection of Aluminum and Magnesium Castings
  • ASTM E 592, Standard Guide to Obtainable ASTM Equivalent Penetrameter Sensitivity for Radiography of Steel Plates 1/4 to 2 in. [6 to 51 mm] Thick with X Rays and 1 to 6 in. [25 to 152 mm] Thick with Cobalt-60
  • ASTM E 747, Standard Practice for Design, Manufacture and Material Grouping Classification of Wire Image Quality Indicators (IQI) Used for Radiology
  • ASTM E 801, Standard Practice for Controlling Quality of Radiological Examination of Electronic Devices
  • ASTM E 1030, Standard Test Method for Radiographic Examination of Metallic Castings
  • ASTM E 1032, Standard Test Method for Radiographic Examination of Weldments
  • ASTM 1161, Standard Practice for Radiologic Examination of Semiconductors and Electronic Components
  • ASTM E 1648, Standard Reference Radiographs for Examination of Aluminum Fusion Welds
  • ASTM E 1735, Standard Test Method for Determining Relative Image Quality of Industrial Radiographic Film Exposed to X-Radiation from 4 to 25 MeV
  • ASTM E 1815, Standard Test Method for Classification of Film Systems for Industrial Radiography
  • ASTM E 1817, Standard Practice for Controlling Quality of Radiological Examination by Using Representative Quality Indicators (RQIs)
  • ASTM E 2104, Standard Practice for Radiographic Examination of Advanced Aero and Turbine Materials and Components

Advantages

  • Permanent record of the test in the form of easily interpretable radiograph
  • Highly sensitive
  • Versatile in examining a variety of shapes and sizes
  • Volumetric inspection that eliminates needs to disassemble component

Limitations

  • RT has thickness limitations based on material density and energy used
  • Can be time consuming
  • Radiation hazard
  • Cracks oriented perpendicular to the x-ray beam may not be detected
  • Electrical source for x-ray tube inspection

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